BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine and propofol on ketamine-induced recovery agitation in adults when used as co-administration with ketamine.
METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, and double-blind clinical trial, 93 patients aged 18 years or older who were candidates for painful procedures in the emergency department (ED) were enrolled and assigned into three equal groups to receive either ketadex (dexmedetomidine 0.7 µg/kg and ketamine 1 mg/kg), ketofol (propofol 0.5 mg/kg and ketamine 0.5 mg/kg) or ketamine alone (1 mg/kg) intravenously. Incidence and severity of recovery agitation were evaluated using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and compared between groups.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics, procedures, pain scores, pre-sedation agitation, and duration of procedure between the three groups. The incidence of recovery agitation was 26% in the Ketadex group, 29% in the Ketofol group, and 58% in the Ketamine group. The difference in incidence of recovery agitation between Ketadex group and Ketamine group was 32% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9 to 56]) and between Ketofol group and Ketamine group was 29% (95% CI, 6 to 53). The severe agitation was significantly higher in Ketamine group, with a difference between Ketamine and Ketadex group of 19% (95% CI, 6 to 33), and a difference between Ketamine and Ketofol group of 16% (95% CI, 1 to 31).
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a combination of ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-propofol reduced the incidence and severity of ketamine-induced recovery agitation in adults undergoing procedural sedation in the ED.
At face value, the results are impressive and there may be a place for this approach in conjunction with procedures like chest tube insertion. 20% of the population were having laceration repair, and administration of multiple IV drugs for these patients is less convincing.
The overall rate of recovery agitation was higher with ketamine sedation compared with the average.