COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17-87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.
This is an important initial study that defines the long term effects of having had COVID-19 and lays the groudwork for future inquiries on the long term effects of this disease.
This is an interesting systematic review and meta analysis for symptoms associated with Long-COVID. This will be of interest to many healthcare disciplines in primary and secondary care and also patients. There is great interest on this subject and this article will contribute to this discussion. It has a really useful diagram presenting symptoms of long-COVID, that I expect will be used in many presentations.
This is really important information. The Long Term effects of COVID-19 diagram with the visual of symptom % is valuable and gives clarity. These considerations come to mind - 1. attention disorder or brain fog is also identified as an effect of the weight of the pandemic in general. 2. Depression, Anxiety, Fatigue are also felt by many during this pandemic regardless of infected status, so it is so important to promote Mental Wellness initiatives for everyone. Continued review and study is required to ensure we are caring appropriately and providing the support as needed.
Listed under "Overall prevalence of most common symptoms" p.4, several diagnostic findings were listed as symptoms, such as reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity, pulmonary fibrosis and myocarditis.
Long COVID is a real concern, but it’s not clear how much this article helps deal with it.
The risk-benefit ratio with the delta variant seems to trump the side effects.
This work is extremely useful to apply to patients who must receive controls after discharge, and to know how symptoms can evolve that are presented or begin to present later.